24 May 2022 The Future is the Product of the Past

Neolithic Age Adults and Children Buried Under Family Homes were not Relative

An international team of scientists found that Children and adults buried next to each other in one of the oldest cities in the world, Catalhoyuk, are not related.

Between 7100 and 5950 BC, the archaeological site of Çatalhöyük in central Turkey was continuously inhabited for nearly 1,200 years. It is estimated that at its peak of growth, the heavily built-up city with an area of several hundred hectares was home to approximately 6,000 people.

The dead were buried under the floors of their homes, prompting historians to ask whether they were linked.

The international team of scholars, which included scientists from the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, analyzed 22 genomes collected from the deceased buried in Anatolia’s prehistoric cities of Aşıklı Höyük and Catalhöyük.

According to the researchers, houses acted as burial places for members of relatives’ communities in some prehistoric settlements, while adults and children buried under one house in other sites, such as Çatalhöyük, were not related to each other. The study’s findings were published in Current Biology.

According to archaeologists, the people who lived in the Middle East during the Neolithic period were the first settled farming groups who not only constructed permanent homes but also buried their dead beneath them.

Catalhoyuk
Catalhoyuk

The researchers said: “This custom has been known for a long time, but the way it was related to the social organization of the residents of these settlements was a matter of guesswork. Some researchers assumed that the buried persons were members of biological families, while others considered more complex structures, not based on genetics.”

To solve the issue, the researchers examined scores of burials from various Neolithic settlements. Dr. Maciej Chyleski of the Institute of Human Biology and Evolution at the Faculty of Biology at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan was one of the leading researchers. In 2019, he demonstrated the absence of maternal ancestry among people buried beneath the floors of houses in çatalhöyük using mitochondrial genomes.

The researchers said: “In the continuation of the project, it was important to extend the research to other sites from the region, but most of all to use nuclear DNA, which enables research in much higher resolution, even despite the poor preservation of genetic material in the tested samples. We analyzed more than 60 samples from two sites, Aşıklı Höyük and Çatalhöyük, but genetic material of adequate quality could be obtained only for 22 samples, most likely due to unfavorable environmental conditions.”

Aşıklı höyük
Aşıklı Höyük

The researchers applied these results to genomes collected from the deceased at three other Anatolian sites: Boncuklu Höyük, Barcın, and Tepeciftlik, and then used them to approximate the degree of kinship between people buried inside or near individual houses.

According to the researchers, the later settlements Çatalhöyük and Barcın yielded more intriguing findings (approx. 8,500 years old). Human populations greatly expanded and stabilized during that period. Researchers were able to collect DNA mostly from the burials of children and babies in these two villages.

The researchers said: “It turned out that in buildings with several such burials, biological relationships between the buried children were relatively rare.”

The findings back up Dr. Chyleski’s earlier findings that there is no proof that these individuals belonged to biological families based on mitochondrial genomes. According to the researchers, the social system in Çatalhöyük, as well as probably other settlements from the time span, was not dependent on genetic relatedness.

The publication’s co-author Professor Arkadiusz Marciniak said: “We are still far from fully understanding the early Neolithic communities, but their organization was certainly significantly different from the structure based on biological kinship or patriarchal kinship relations. The basis of social organization was probably a complex system of socially regulated dependencies and connections linking individuals and groups of people living in individual households.”

Source: PAP

Banner
Related Post

Mystery ax discovered off the coast of Arendal of Norway

26 July 2021

26 July 2021

Researchers have discovered a find that could be a first for Norwegian archeology. A hollow ax, which researchers believe dates...

Hellenic and Roman statue heads unearthed in Knidos

9 December 2021

9 December 2021

Hellenic and Roman sculpture heads were unearthed in the ancient Carian settlement Knidos, located in the Datça district of Muğla...

Ancient tombs discovered at Paris’ Notre-Dame Cathedral

15 March 2022

15 March 2022

Archaeologists discovered several graves and a leaden sarcophagus possibly dating from the 14th century at Paris’ Notre Dame church, France’s...

8000-year-old with balcony architectural structure belonging to the Prehistoric period found in Anatolia

31 October 2021

31 October 2021

During the excavations in Domuztepe mound, it was revealed that an architectural structure thought to be 7-8 thousand years old...

Beheaded croc reveals ancient family secrets

10 March 2022

10 March 2022

A missing link in crocodilian evolution and a tragic tale of human-driven extinction. The partially fossilized remains of a giant...

A 4000-Year-Old Trading Port was Discovered in Istanbul

4 May 2021

4 May 2021

Archaeological excavations carried out on a peninsula in the middle of Istanbul Küçükçekmece Lake unearthed a very important 4,000-year-old trade...

Analysis of 13,000-Year-Old Bones Reveals Violent Raids in Prehistoric ‘Jebel Sahaba’

28 May 2021

28 May 2021

Since its discovery in the 1960s, the 13-millennium-old Jebel Sahaba cemetery (Nile Valley, Sudan) has been regarded as one of...

The Earliest Evidence of a Domesticated Dog in the Arabian Peninsula

9 April 2021

9 April 2021

Dogs have been the best friend of humans since ancient times. Although it is not known exactly when dogs were...

The ancestors of many animal species alive today may have lived in a delta in what is now China, new research suggests

20 April 2022

20 April 2022

The ancestors of many animal species alive today may have lived in a delta in what is now China, new...

Egyptian archaeologists found 110 ancient tombs in the Nile Delta

28 April 2021

28 April 2021

The Tourism and Antiquities Ministry announced Tuesday that Egyptian archaeologists had discovered 110 burial tombs on the Nile Delta dating...

Mummy of Egyptian pharaoh Amenhotep ‘unwrapped’ for the first time in 3,500 years!

30 December 2021

30 December 2021

Egyptian scientists have digitally unwrapped the 3,500-year-old mummy of pharaoh Amenhotep I. For the first time, a team in Egypt...

3500-year-old menhir discovered in Mahbubabad, India

15 March 2022

15 March 2022

Six feet in height stone, also called a menhir, was found on the roadside of Ellarigudem, a hamlet of Beechrajupally...

Paleonursery offers a detailed glimpse at life 518 million years ago

6 July 2021

6 July 2021

Fossilized specimens of thousands of undersea animals buried under a sedimentary avalanche 518 million years ago have been found near...

Pandemics Determined the Fate of Wars in Ancient Times

7 April 2021

7 April 2021

Epidemics have been one of the factors affecting the fate of wars throughout history. Epidemics have sometimes turned the fate...

A new study reveals more than one person was buried in a tomb where the famous Nestor’s Cup was found

6 October 2021

6 October 2021

The Tomb of Nestor’s Cup, a burial that contained one of the oldest known Greek inscriptions, was more crowded than...

Comments
Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.