26 January 2023 The Future is the Product of the Past

Negev desert archaeological site offers important clues about modern human origin

The archaeological excavation site at Boker Tachtit in Israel’s central Negev desert offers evidence to one of human history’s most momentous events: the expansion of modern humans, Homo sapiens, from Africa into Eurasia, and the subsequent extinction of Neanderthal populations in the region.

Researchers from the Weizmann Institute of Science and the Max Planck Society, directed by Prof. Elisabetta Boaretto, returned to Boker Tachtit over 40 years after it was initially unearthed, together with Dr. Omry Barzilai of the Israel Antiquities Authority. They offer a new chronological framework for this key chapter in our anthropological evolution by using advanced sampling and dating technologies.

The study, which was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, indicates that Homo sapiens and Neanderthals were not strangers.

According to the “recent African origin” theory, Homo sapiens originated in Africa as recently as 270,000 years ago, and at various times took either the northern route to Eurasia via the Levant or several possible southern routes to remote corners of Asia and even Oceania—reaching as far as Australia by land.

The excavations at the 50,000-year-old Boker Tachtit site in the Negev Desert Photo: Prof. Elisabetta Boaretto, Weizmann Institute of Science]
The excavations at the 50,000-year-old Boker Tachtit site in the Negev Desert Photo: Prof. Elisabetta Boaretto, Weizmann Institute of Science]

Boker Tachtit, in the Wadi Zin basin, in what is now the Ein Avdat National Park, is regarded as an important location for tracing this migration. It is a significant Levantine site for recording an important time in human prehistory: the transition from the Middle to Upper Paleolithic—that is, from a prehistorical society dominated by Neanderthals to the beginning of modern humans’ dominion. This period was distinguished by technological advancements such as blade manufacturing and the introduction of standardized implements made of bones and antlers.

Boker Tachtit is a transitional industry from the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic, according to American archaeologist Anthony Marks, who first excavated and published his analysis of the site in the early 1980s. Marks defines the site as a transitional industry from the Middle to the Upper Paleolithic and dates it to 47,000 years ago based on a single radiocarbon date. However, other dates found from the site, some of which date back to 34,000 years ago, made the transition’s timing extremely difficult.

“If we are to follow this timeline, then the transitional period could have lasted more than 10,000 years, and yet artifacts excavated from northern sites in Israel, Lebanon, and even Turkey suggest that the transition occurred much faster,” says Prof. Boaretto, who heads the Dangoor Research Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (D-REAMS) Laboratory at the Weizmann Institute, which specializes in advanced archaeological dating methods. “Marks managed to date only a few specimens from Boker Tachtit, owing to the limitations of radiocarbon dating then, and the range of his proposed dates is not consistent with evidence gathered from other—old and new—excavation sites in the region,” Prof. Boaretto says. “Radiocarbon dating, the method that he used in his study, has evolved tremendously since his time.”

(L-R) View of the Boker Tachtit excavation site. Circled: a group of unearthed flint stone artifacts; Flint point representative of the Upper Paleolithic in Boker Tachtit Photo: Clara Amit, Israel Antiquities Authority]
(L-R) View of the Boker Tachtit excavation site. Circled: a group of unearthed flint stone artifacts; Flint point representative of the Upper Paleolithic in Boker Tachtit Photo: Clara Amit, Israel Antiquities Authority]

Prof. Boaretto, Dr. Barzilai, and their interdisciplinary team used advanced dating methods on specimens acquired from Boker Tachtit during their excavations in 2013-2015 to answer these concerns. The Weizmann Institute and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, respectively, used cutting-edge techniques including high-resolution radiocarbon dating of single charcoal fragments found at the site and optically stimulated luminescence dating of quartz sand grains. The researchers also integrated detailed studies of the sediments, using microarchaeological methods to understand how the site was formed physically, contributing necessary data for the construction of its chronological framework.

“We are now able to conclude with greater confidence that the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition was a rather fast-evolving event that began at Boker Tachtit approximately 50-49,000 years ago and ended about 44,000 years ago,” says Prof. Boaretto. This dating allows for a certain overlap between the material transition that occurred at Boker Tachtit and that of the Mediterranean woodland region (Lebanon and Turkey) between 49,000 and 46,000 years ago. Still, it shows that Boker Tachtit was the earliest site for this transition in the Levant and that, based on the materials found, it is a testimony to the last dispersal event of modern humans from Africa.

The early phase of Boker Tachtit also overlaps with the preceding Middle Paleolithic society in the area, the Neanderthals, according to the new dating system. “This goes to show that Neanderthals and Homo sapiens in the Negev coexisted and most likely interacted with one another, resulting in not only genetic interbreeding, as is postulated by the ‘recent African origin’ theory, but also in cultural exchange,” Prof. Boaretto and Dr. Barzilai conclude.

Cover Photo: Wikipedia-Negev Desert

Source: Weizmann Institute of Science

Banner
Related Post

“Cardiff’s earliest house” unearthed during an archaeological dig may shed light on the city’s earliest inhabitants

15 July 2022

15 July 2022

Archaeological excavation in a city park in Cardiff, the capital of Wales, has uncovered what is believed to be the...

In Oman, a 4,000-year-old Early Bronze Age settlement was unearthed

25 January 2022

25 January 2022

A large settlement dating back more than 4,000 years has been discovered in Oman. Archaeological excavations in the Wilayat of Rustaq,...

The 890-million-year-old sponge fossil may be the oldest animal yet discovered

1 August 2021

1 August 2021

890-million-year-old fossil sponges found in the “Little Dal” limestones of northwest Canada may be the oldest animal ever found. According...

Archeologists Unearth Spectator snacks from the Roman Period in Colosseum

28 November 2022

28 November 2022

An excavation of the Colosseum’s sewer systems has uncovered a selection of spectator snacks from the Roman Period. It appears...

New fortification walls discovered in the ancient city of Pergamon

14 February 2022

14 February 2022

2,500-year-old fortification walls were found in the Ancient City of Pergamon (Bergama), which was included in the World Heritage List...

A 3800-year-old cylinder seal was discovered at Turkey’s Tepebag Mound excavations

8 July 2022

8 July 2022

In the 2022 excavations of Tepebag Mound, located around Taşköprü, the center of Adana province in Turkey’s Mediterranean Region, a...

The World’s Largest Pyramid Is Hidden Within a Hill in Mexico

8 October 2022

8 October 2022

The largest and tallest pyramids in the world are incredible feats of design, engineering, and construction. The Great Pyramid of...

2800-year-old two Swords found in Germany from the start of the Iron Age

8 June 2022

8 June 2022

During archaeological excavations in preparation for the construction of the fire station in the Frieding district of Andechs in southern...

New Museum being Built for the Stolen Goddess Cybele in Western Turkey

12 June 2021

12 June 2021

A marble statue of the Anatolian mother goddess Cybele, which was returned to its native home of Turkey’s Afyonkarahisar will...

World’s Largest Geoglyphs Found in the Thar Desert

29 May 2021

29 May 2021

A massive spiral encompassing 100,000 square meters unearthed in the Indian desert may be the greatest drawing ever drawn. The...

2,000-year-old Celtic hoard of gold ‘rainbow cups’ discovered in northeastern Germany

13 January 2022

13 January 2022

Archaeologists have found an ancient Celtic coins treasure consisting of 41 gold coins in a field in Brandenburg, a state...

Bone workshop and oil lamp shop unearthed in Aizanoi ancient city in western Turkey

13 November 2021

13 November 2021

Archaeologists have unearthed a bone workshop and an oil lamp shop in an Aizanoi ancient city in the Çavdarhisar district...

The New Study, Reveals Invisible Stews

25 November 2022

25 November 2022

New Results of Organic Residue Analyzes of Beveled Rim Bowls in Mesopotamia Reveal Invisible Stews. The world’s first urban state...

8000-year-old unique “fish-figure” small home tool found in Turkey

20 October 2021

20 October 2021

During this year’s excavations in the Yeşilova and Yassıtepe mounds in İzmir, a unique “fish-figure” small home tool was found....

The Ancient City of Miletos’s “Sacred Cave” Opened to Visitors

2 October 2021

2 October 2021

In the ancient city of Miletos, which had an important place in the advancement of philosophy, art, and science in...

Comments
Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *