3 February 2023 The Future is the Product of the Past

The unknown importance of Göllü Dağ on the route of the first humans’ Transition from Africa to Europe

The researches conducted in Göllü Dağ and its surroundings, located within the borders of Niğde province in Central Anatolia, and the Obsidian resources and workshops discovered in the region in the 1960s may change the route of the migration routes where the first humans spread from Africa to the world.

As a result of the researches, it has been revealed that the use of obsidian in the region has been one of the places preferred by people in terms of raw materials since the Lower Paleolithic period (800.000).

Göllü Dağ, located in the northeast of Niğde province, is a stratovolcano with a diameter of 12 km.

Obsidians extracted from the region were imported to the Levant region and Cyprus. Although the relationships and distribution strategies are still unknown, researches conducted in these regions show that the origin of obsidian belongs to the Göllü Dağ region.

Surveys in many parts of Anatolia, mostly secondary and non-in situ finds, indicate that Anatolia was home to a dense human group during the Middle Pleistocene.

Excavations at Kaletepe in Niğde province are also important in terms of showing the diversity of human groups in the Middle Pleistocene period in this region. The lower layers of the Kaletepe sequence locked between 160/200,000 – 1,000,000 are very important.

The 40,000-Year-Old Obsidian Tool Found in Syria Was Brought From Central Anatolia.
The 40,000-Year-Old Obsidian Tool Found in Syria Was Brought From Central Anatolia. Map showing obsidian sources (triangles) and Late Stone Age sites (boxes) in southwest Asia. The red line shows the shortest route, about 700 kilometers, from the obsidian source in central Turkey to Syria’s Yabroud II rock shelter. The blue line shows the shortest, approximately 450-kilometer route from the obsidian source in Southeast Anatolia to the Shanidar Cave in Northern Iraq. P: Frahm, Hauck.

Research conducted in Kaletepe shows that after the group that made axes using obsidian, a group that did not know this technique lived in the same region.

Chronologically, the group that knows how to design is older than the group that doesn’t. This situation shows the existence of different evolved groups, at least technically, in the Anatolian sub-paleolithic.

Homo erectus, which emerged from Africa around 1.300.000 – 1.000.000 years, split into two after the Near East and headed towards Asia and Europe. In this period, the place of Anatolia in this migration route was ignored, and the Caucasus and North Black Sea steppes were shown as distribution routes.

The 40,000-year-old obsidian tool found in Syria was brought by hunter-gatherers from Göllü Dağ in Central Anatolia, at least 700 kilometers away. Photo: Ellery Frahm
The 40,000-year-old obsidian tool found in Syria was brought by hunter-gatherers from Göllü Dağ in Central Anatolia, at least 700 kilometers away. Photo: Ellery Frahm

However, as the Göllü Dağ finds show the existence of Homo erectus, the results of the examination of their tools also point to different Homo erectus groups with different technical skills.

An important part of the Göllü Dağ finds belongs to the Middle Paleolithic. These finds are cores exhibiting the technique used by Neanderthals. These beans have a processing technique called Levallois. In addition, the diversity of nuclei also constitutes evidence for the existence of different human groups.

The researches in the region started with the excavations started by Remzi Oğuz Arık in 1934 and were continued by Burhan Tezcan in 1968-69 and Wulf Schirmer in 1992-98, respectively.

During the excavations carried out in 1996, it was determined that the first people used these areas during their transition from Africa to Europe.

During these research excavations, a settlement belonging to the Late Hittite Kingdoms period was also unearthed.

In this article, excerpts are made from Professor Nur Balkan Atlı’s article titled “Kaletepe Obsidiyen Atölyesi Kazısı ve Göllü Dağ Obsidiyen Projesi”.

Cover Photo: @ekonyar

Banner
Related Post

2000-year-old quarry discovered in Jerusalem that could be the source of Second temple stones

5 September 2021

5 September 2021

Archaeologists have discovered a 2,000-year-old quarry in Har Hotzvim, now an industrial park in Jerusalem. The Israel Antiquities Authority said...

A Large Roman Pottery Production Center was Found in Poland

2 April 2021

2 April 2021

A large Roman pottery production center was found in Poland. The production center was discovered near the village of Wrzepia,...

Metal signature of Roman 19th Legion identified at Teutoburg battle site that shook Rome in AD9

5 December 2022

5 December 2022

Researchers in Germany have identified the metallurgic signature of the Roman 19th Legion in artifacts recovered from the Battle of...

Gladiators’ ancient hygiene tools on exhibit in Izmir

22 July 2021

22 July 2021

Turkey’s Izmir Archaeological Museum is hosting a different exhibition this month. A bronze strigil is the museum’s guest this month...

Trian Fountain to Be Revived After 1900 Years

17 April 2021

17 April 2021

The Trian fountain in the ancient city of Laodikeia in Denizli will be revived after 1900 years. CHP’s Merkezefendi Municipality...

An Urartian female executive grave was found at the Çavuştepe Mound

9 September 2021

9 September 2021

The grave of an Urartian, who was buried with his horse, cattle, and dog, had been found recently. Today, another...

Researchers sequenced the DNA 1,600-year-old sheep mummy from an ancient Iranian salt mine, Chehrabad

16 July 2021

16 July 2021

A multinational team of geneticists and archaeologists sequenced the DNA from a 1,600-year-old sheep mummy discovered from Chehrabad, a salt...

A new study shows that the cave paintings at Cueva Ardales are the work of Neanderthals

21 August 2021

21 August 2021

A study of pigments used in murals in the Cueva Ardales caves in southern Spain has revealed that Neanderthals, long...

Dutch Shrimp Fishermen caught a centuries-old carved wooden statue off the coast of Texel

17 August 2022

17 August 2022

A carved wooden statue in exceptional condition has been attached to fishing nets off the coast of Texel, one of...

A 5,000-year-old large house has been discovered in China’s Yangshao Village

7 December 2022

7 December 2022

Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Heritage and Archaeology archaeologists have excavated the ruins of house foundations dating back more than...

In Oman, a 4,000-year-old Early Bronze Age settlement was unearthed

25 January 2022

25 January 2022

A large settlement dating back more than 4,000 years has been discovered in Oman. Archaeological excavations in the Wilayat of Rustaq,...

History, geography, and evolution are rewrites thanks to an incredible dinosaur trove discovered in Italy

2 December 2021

2 December 2021

A dinosaur trove in Italy rewrites the history, geography, and evolution of the ancient Mediterranean area. Italy is not exactly...

Decapitated skeletons of Roman ‘criminals’ found on HS2 route

5 February 2022

5 February 2022

Archaeologists working with the HS2 project have discovered 425 bodies on the route of the new railway line – around...

2100-year-old women skeleton found lying in bronze ‘Mermaid Bed’

4 June 2022

4 June 2022

Archaeologists have discovered the 2100-year-old skeleton of a woman lying in a bronze ‘Mermaid Bed’ near the city of Kozani...

A center on the Anatolian Mesopotamian trade route; Tavsanli Mound

24 October 2021

24 October 2021

Excavations at Tavşanlı mound, which is known to be the first settlement in Western Anatolia during the Bronze Age, continue....

Comments
Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *