21 July 2024 The Future is the Product of the Past

Patara Ancient City Lighthouse is Reconstructed with Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence technology was used for the reconstruction of the lighthouse, which is located in the ancient city of Patara, built by the Roman Emperor Nero and estimated to have collapsed in the tsunami in 1481.

Patara Ancient City, located in the present Ovagelemiş Village at the southwestern end of the Xanthos Valley between Fethiye and Kalkan (South of Turkey), was accepted as 2020 Patara Year by the Ministry of Turkish Culture and Tourism. Patara also has special importance with its archaeological and historical values as well as being one of the rare beaches where the Mediterranean turtles Caretta-Caretta lay their eggs and breed for millions of years.

Excavations in Patara Ancient City, the capital of Lycia, started in 1988. Prof. Dr. Fahri Işık and his wife Prof. Dr. Havva İşkan Işık Hundreds of historical artifacts, especially the Lycian civilization, have been unearthed in the excavations initiated by.

One of the most important works unearthed in Patara excavations is the lighthouse built by Roman Emperor Nero in 64 AD. Exactly 12 years after the excavations started, It was determined that the lighthouse unearthed by Prof. Dr. Havva İşkan Işık contained 2,500 original stones.

2 thousand 500 stones are being combined 

The lighthouse is being built on the completed 6-meter podium by replacing the stones that cannot be used statically due to falling from height.

According to the news of the DHA agency; The application tender was made by the Antalya Governorship Investment Monitoring and Coordination Directorate (YIKOB) Cultural Heritage Directorate.

In the 15th century, a technical report was prepared in order to prevent the collapse of the lighthouse, which was thought to have been destroyed due to the Rhodes earthquake and the tsunami that occurred in the Mediterranean, in a possible earthquake or tsunami in the years after its reconstruction. In accordance with the report prepared by Dr. Cenk Üstündağ, materials such as steel spiral, steel pipe, steel rods, pure epoxy resin adhesive, carbon-fiber mesh reinforcement, the high-strength natural hydraulic lime-binder mortar will be used in the reconstruction.

X-rays of 2 thousand 500 stones were taken

During the long years of excavations, 2,500 stones were taken one by one in the stone hospital established in the field, and their original locations were determined with the help of a computer program by using artificial intelligence technologies after the physical and chemical examinations carried out in the laboratory.

Şahabettin Öztürk, the head of the Department of Architecture at Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, the scientific consultant of the reconstruction process, where Havva İşkan worked in the field together with the architectural team, explained that approximately 2 thousand 500 stones excavated were laser studied in three dimensions and all dimensions were scanned.

Patara Ancient City Lighthouse
Patara Ancient City Lighthouse

It was under the ground for nearly a thousand years

Doctor Öztürk pointed out that the stones remained under the sand after the collapse of the lantern, and that the stones were preserved in the reconstruction today provides a great advantage. Noting that the physical and chemical properties of each stone are analyzed in the laboratory, Dr. Öztürk, Although it is not first-degree evidence, some data about the general location of the lighthouse were used on some coins belonging to the Nero period.

Stones worked with concave and convex surfaces made of polygonal and rectangular stones meet their positions only when they are placed in their real places. The reason for the long duration of the study is that the stones in the stone hospital were individually x-rayed and analyzed whether there was tissue loss in the interior. The rotten ones should not be used, the solid ones should be used one to one” he said.

Artificial intelligence technology 

Explaining that the Revit program, which is the building system software, is used to determine the original locations of the stones, Dr. Öztürk said, “All data were processed in the program. Approximately 2 thousand 500 stones were found to be 80-90 percent compliant with many trials and error methods in the computer environment.

In my opinion, it is assumed that 80 percent original stone and 20 percent new stone will be used from the preliminary data we have obtained. In this way, the lighthouse will be restored and this is not a restoration, but a reconstruction process, that is, reconstructing the structure, ”he said.

There is no example in the World 

2 thousand approximately 80 percent of the annual rebuilt with the original stones in terms of a lighthouse indicating that the first application in Turkey Dr. Öztürk explained that there are no examples in the world, of which 80 percent original materials are used. Dr. Öztürk, In this sense, it is an important structure that we can call the first application. “It is an architectural texture that rises in an upward spiral on a cylindrical body of approximately 26.5 meters in height and 6 meters in diameter.” 

Nero’s prestige Project

On the lighthouse, which is stated to be the prestige project of the Roman Emperor Nero, there is an inscription in gold letters about who it was built by and the date of its construction. In the stone inscriptions unearthed during the excavations, there is a statement addressing Patara Council and the governor of the Patara people at the time, Sextus Marcius, “We thank you for governing the people of Lycia rightfully, without taking bribes and for adorning our city with beautiful monuments for eight years”

A monument of universal value

Professor Havva İşkan Işık, who excavated the lighthouse, said:

“When our works initiated by the Antalya Governorship and Investment Monitoring and Coordination Directorate in Patara in 2020, which was accepted with the proposal of our Minister of Culture and Tourism and the approval of our President, our country will have another monument of universal value.

I express my gratitude to all of them as a scientist. For our lighthouse, which is a candidate to become one of the symbols of Antalya, we continue our work in a multidisciplinary manner and using high technology. On this lighthouse, which is one of the prestige buildings of the Roman Empire, Nero says, “I made it for the salvation of the sailors.” We are working for the day when we will be proud to present this lighthouse to our country and to the heroic sailors of this country. ”

Source: Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism, DHA

Related Articles

The history of Kültepe Mound in central Turkey goes back another 300 years

12 December 2021

12 December 2021

In Kültepe, where the first written documents of Anatolia were unearthed, the date based on 5 thousand years was updated...

An important discovery in Haltern: Mini temples and sacrificial pit discovered in Roman military encampment

16 November 2023

16 November 2023

Archaeologists from the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association (LWL) have found remains of the foundations of two mini Roman temples and a...

Illegal digs reveal rare Roman-era mass grave in Turkey

28 July 2022

28 July 2022

A total of 27 skeletons were found in a burial pit carved into the rocks in Adıyaman province, an important...

Mysterious ruins discovered at the bottom of Lake Van, Türkiye’s largest lake

16 August 2023

16 August 2023

At the bottom of Lake Van, Türkiye’s largest salty soda lake with 3,712 square kilometers, divers discovered a cemetery and...

The free online course from the Colchester Museums and University of Reading Department of Archeology

12 July 2021

12 July 2021

The opportunity to be among the first to examine 2,000-year-old cremated remains from Roman Britain and learn about the origins...

Archaeologists Discovered “Temple of the Emperors” in the Agora of the Ancient City of Nikopolis, Greece

30 May 2024

30 May 2024

The Greek Ministry of Culture declared that fresh discoveries had been made during archaeological excavations at the ancient Nikopolis Agora...

Return of a 4,250-year-old Hattian golden beak-spouted ewer to Turkey

27 October 2021

27 October 2021

The 4,250-year-old golden beak-spouted ewer was returned to the Anatolian Civilizations Museum by the Gilbert Art Foundation. Culture and Tourism...

8000-year-old unique “fish-figure” small home tool found in Turkey

20 October 2021

20 October 2021

During this year’s excavations in the Yeşilova and Yassıtepe mounds in İzmir, a unique “fish-figure” small home tool was found....

Women in Anatolia from the Prehistoric Age to the Iron Age

19 March 2022

19 March 2022

Throughout the history of Anatolia: a woman appears as a goddess with creative and productive powers, as a ruling monarch,...

More than 50 pairs of tweezers found during an excavation of a 2,000-year-old Roman settlement – Romans to blame for no-body-hair trend

31 May 2023

31 May 2023

More than 50 pairs of tweezers were found during the major excavation in Wroxeter City, Shropshire, one of the largest...

A rare 2500-year-old saw, the first of its kind, discovered in Anatolia

28 November 2023

28 November 2023

Archaeologists conducting excavations in Çorum, the capital of the Ancient Hittite Empire in northern Turkey, discovered a 2,250-year-old saw. Recent...

Multiple Burials found at Çatalhöyük

17 September 2021

17 September 2021

Multiple burials were unearthed during the ongoing excavations in the house on the eastern mound of the Neolithic settlement Çatalhöyük....

The altar of Zeus Temple discovered in western Turkey

1 September 2023

1 September 2023

Archaeological excavations in the ancient city of Magnesia, located in the western province of Aydın’s Germencik district, have uncovered the...

Meaning of Agora Gate Found in Turkey’s Ancient City of Aizanoi

8 June 2021

8 June 2021

The good news continues to come from the ancient city of Aizanoi, located in Çavdarhisar district, 50 km from Kütahya....

A 3800-year-old cylinder seal was discovered at Turkey’s Tepebag Mound excavations

8 July 2022

8 July 2022

In the 2022 excavations of Tepebag Mound, located around Taşköprü, the center of Adana province in Turkey’s Mediterranean Region, a...